Reference Works/Encyclopedias

Reference Works – Electronic ressources:

Glydendals Online Leksikon – Den Store Danske Encyklopædi
This online lexicon, published by the major Danish publishing house Gyldendal, contains the electronic version of the twenty-two volume Great Danish Encyclopedia (Den Store Danske Encyklopædi), plus the four-volume Glydendal lexicon.

Wikipedia – the free encyclopedia
Please note: although Wikipedia contains many useful, high-quality articles, it is not considered a reliable source in serious scholarly research.

Gale Virtual Reference Library
This is an online collection of different encyclopedias, relevant for the humanities and the social studies. In the history section you can find: Ancient Europe, 8000 BC to 1000 AD: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World, Cold War Reference Library, Encyclopedia of European Social History, Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire, Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction, Encyclopedia of Russian History, Encyclopedia of the Great Depression, Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World, Vietnam War Reference Library.

Lexicon des Mittelalters
This is the online edition of the classic LexMA encyclopedia. It is in German, with headwords translated into English. The LexMA is fully integrated with the International Encyclopaedia for the Middle Ages (IEMA), and it contains links to the ‘International Medieval Bibliography.’ Users can thus see the full bibliography for the specific article, or they can get a reading list relevant for the topic.

Kessing’s online
Keesing’s Record of World Events Online is an electronic archive of major historical reports, whose printed version is available at the State Library (for the period 1987-2001). The online edition covers the period from 1960 to the present day.

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
The latest update from January 2008 reports on more than 56,000 individuals, important for British history from the earliest times to the present day, whose biographies are covered in this indispensable biographical dictionary. It contains thousands of illustrations. Only deceased individuals are included.

Oxford Reference Online – Premium Collection (Number of users: 5)
Oxford University Press’s online reference library. It contains dozens of Oxford dictionaries and reference works, covering all subjects. It is possible to search across the entire database, or to do an ‘advanced search’ by focusing on a specific field or an individual reference work. The collection consists primarily of reference works, and it is thus suitable for providing a quick overview of a chosen topic, or a brief explanation of a certain concept.

International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
Comprehensive online encyclopedia that includes newest scientific articles and references relevant for the social sciences and humanities.

Bauer’s Calendar, for years 601-2200 AD
Online edition of the same book, published in 1868 by R.W. Bauer. It contains calendar tables for all the years mentioned above.

Routledge Companion to Historical Studies
Online edition of the book by Alun Munslow, published in 2000. It examines the key concepts in history, retrospectively, from the 18th C. until the 1990s. If you would like to find out more about the author’s theoretical standpoint, we recommend the chapter ‘History Today: Critical Perspectives.’

Salmonsens konversationsleksikon
An old classic Danish encyclopedia, published in several editions from 1891 to 1949. The second edition, published between 1915 and 1930 in twenty-six volumes, is being digitalized through the Runeberg Project. So far they have come up to the letter ‘G’.

Statistics Denmark
Different kinds of statistics on Denmark, in both Danish and English.

StatBank Denmark
Part of the ’Statistics Denmark’; free access to detailed statistical information on different aspects of Danish society. Both Danish and English version.

OFFSTATS: Official Statistics on the Web
A web portal with links to official institutions around the world, which provide statistical information on different countries. Searching is possible by country, region or by topic. The website was created and is maintained by the University Of Auckland Library.

Danmarks Kirker 1933-
This project of describing all churches in Denmark was initiated in 1933 by experts from the National Museum of Denmark, and is now being transferred into electronic form. Information on about half of all the churches is so far available online. There is a comprehensive index organized alphabetically by churches’ names. A printed edition is also available.

Grove Art (Number of users: 1)
Online reference work that provides information on all art forms worldwide, since the prehistoric times to the present day. The database also contains biographies and illustrations of the works of art.

Diplomatarium Danicum
The volumes 8-12, from the fourth series of the Diplomatarium Danicum will be soon available in electronic form. These volumes contain diplomas from the period 1401-1412. The complete fourth series of the Diplomatarium thus consists of the first seven volumes in a printed edition, combined with last five volumes in electronic form. The printed edition is available at the State Library’s reading room under the group ‘Lk’.

Diplomatarium Norvegicum
This is an ongoing project similar to the Danish and Swedish one, of digitalizing medieval diplomas and making them available on the Internet. So far, it is only possible to do online search that further points to the printed edition.

Svenskt Diplomatarium
See the explanation under ‘Diplomatarium Norvegicum’

The Catholic Encyclopedia (New Advent)
The website contains the updated edition of the old Catholic Encyclopedia, together with the writings of the Church Fathers, the Apocrypha, ecclesiastical letters, and a comprehensive collection of the official Church documents.

Encyclopaedia of Islam
This is a reference work in Islamic studies. It focuses primarily on the pre-Modern period, although it is possible to search for phenomena and people from our own period. The database contains more than 13,000 references to articles on Islamic history, religion and culture.

Biographical encyclopedias and dictionaries

Dansk biografisk leksikon, v. 1-16
Founded in 1887 by C.F. Bricka and further developed by Povl Engelstoft, assisted by Svend Dahl. This is the third edition, ed. by Sv. Cedergreen Bech; published in Copenhagen, by Gyldendal, 1979-1984. V. 16 contains the index, which covers the previous editions of the Leksikon, together with Haandleksikon (see below). You can find it at the State Library’s reading room, under ‘Cg.’

Dansk biografisk leksikon, v. 1-26
Founded by C.F. Bricka; ed. by Povl Engelstoft, assisted by Svend Dahl; published in Copenhagen, 1933-44. It is available at the State Library’s reading room, under ‘Cg’.

Dansk biografisk Lexikon: Tillige omfattende Norge for Tidsrummet 1537-1814, v. 1-19
It includes extensive information on Norway in the above mentioned period. It was published by C.F. Bricka, in Copenhagen, 1887-1905. It is kept at the State Library’s reading room, under ‘Cg.’

Dansk biografisk Lexikon: Tillige omfattende Norge for Tidsrummet 1537-1814, v. 1-19

Dansk biografisk Haandleksikon
Edited by Svend Dahl and P. Engelstoft

Dansk Kvindebiografisk Leksikon
Online edition of the same book. The encyclopedia contains biographies of 1924 most famous Danish women, from the middle ages to the present day.

Kraks blå bog
Biographies of living men and women from Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. It is kept at the State Library’s reading room, under ‘Cg.’

Litteraturpriser mv. - den uforbederlige bibliotekars skrabsammen
A privately initiated, useful website containing links and comprehensive factual information about Danish writers, Danish and international prizes in literature, and prize winners. It is kept at the State Library’s reading room, under ‘Cf.’


Ordbog over det danske sprog
This is the online dictionary of the standard Danish language. It covers the period from 1700 until ca. 1950, and includes many words from dialects and slang.

Ordbog til det ældre danske sprog (1300-1700)
Online edition of the same dictionary by Otto Kalkar.

Korpus 2000
The aim of this project is to document, in an interactive online form, the actual use of the Danish language around the year 2000.

Grimm Deutsches Wörterbuch
Internet edition, developed by the University of Trier, of the same book, kept at the State Library’s reading room, under ‘Gm1.’

Oxford English Dictionary
This is the online, second edition of the OED, which in its printed form consists of twenty volumes. It contains over half a million words, from all regions of the world where English is spoken. The difference between this and a dictionary of current English is that the OED traces all different senses of a word since it came into use, based on quotation evidence. It also provides comprehensive etymological information and different spellings of words, as well as different pronunciations. More than 2,5 million quotations from a wide range of sources provide good examples of how words are being used. The printed edition is available at the State Library’s reading room, under ‘Gm1.’
Danish-English / English-Danish online dictionary.
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